Read ✓ Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία By Flavius Josephus –

Read ✓ Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία By Flavius Josephus – [Reading] ➷ Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία Author Flavius Josephus – Josephus’ account of a war marked by treachery and atrocity is a superbly detailed and evocative record of the Jewish rebellion against Rome between AD 66 and 70 Originally a rebel leader Josephus c Josephus’ account of a ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ ePUB ☆ war marked by treachery and atrocity Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου eBook è is a superbly detailed and evocative record of the Jewish rebellion Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ PDF/EPUB ê against Rome between AD and originally a rebel leader Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς PDF/EPUB or Josephus changed sides after he was captured to become a Rome appointed negotiator and so was uniuely placed to observe these turbulent events from the siege of Jerusalem to the final heroic resistance and mass suicides at Masada His account provides much of what we know about the history of the Jews under Roman rule with vivid portraits of such key figures as the Emperor Vespasian and Herod the Great Often self justifying and divided in its loyalties The Jewish War nevertheless remains one of the most immediate accounts of war its heroism and its horrors ever written.

10 thoughts on “Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου ἱστορία Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους βιβλία

  1. WILLIAM2 WILLIAM2 says:

    The Jewish War started strong and I wondered at first if it might hold a candle to Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War It doesn't in the end Much of it comes across as a piece of special pleading Josephus wrote the book during a time of growing hostility under Roman Emperor Domitian reigned 81 96 CE toward those of the Jewish faith The Jews had long had an official exemption from participation in the state rites yet the increasingly tyrannical Domitian firmly believed in the traditional Roman religion and personally saw to it that ancient customs and morals were observed throughout his reign as a means of justifying the divine nature of Flavian rule Josephus's friends and protectors the Flavian emperors Vespasian and Titus were dead by this time Moreover Josephus was writing against a work by Justin of Tiberias that portrayed him as an instigator of the revolt in Galilee So The Jewish War is very much Josephus' apologia He loses no opportunity to excoriate the character of his fellow Jews though he grudgingly admires their fighting ability or to praise the valor insight patience fair play discipline and training of the Romans All the Jews by contrast are murderous banditti who pollute their own sanctuary and turn on each other in a heinous fratricidal civil war that precedes the arrival of the Romans The Jewish leaders—John Simon the Zealots the Idumeans—are the scum of the earth Josephus often uses that very phrase They he says possess no conscience or moral bearing It all gets to be a bit much in the end Though the book lacks crucial balance I nevertheless recommend it for two reasons 1 its uniueness as a document; and 2 it's detailed and vivid depictions of ancient Judea Nothing I've read has ever provided me with such a detailed look at both ancient Jerusalem and the broader landscape of Judea

  2. David Gustafson David Gustafson says:

    Let us begin by preparing ourselves for Josephus' account of The Jewish Revolt with a breathtaking tour of The Temple Mount prepared by the Israeli Antiuities Authorityhttpswwwyoutubecomwatch?vHHLD6With the loot from the Temple destruction and the sale of thousands of prisoners into slavery Vespasian financed The Colosseum also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre Vespasian did not live to see the completion of his Colosseum His son Titus who defeated the Jews inaugurated it ten years after his victory with games that lasted for than a hundred daysThus the destruction of the Temple devoted to the worship of God the creator of life and the repository of human blessings financed an entertainment facility dedicated to the worship of artful killing and deathTo make a cultural comparison here is a virtual tour of the completed Colosseumhttpswwwyoutubecomwatch?vbAWTJNow we are almost ready for The Jewish Revolt but we need some additional information about its author since Josephus has become an integral feature of the story by his own treachery In some respects the reader is listening to a criminal spin his alibi But listen we must because this is the only eyewitness account we have of so many of the strategies tragedies and gory details of the Jewish War Like a cynical lead investigator the reader has to sort through the contradictions of this apologia whenever Josephus appears as a player to come away with a broader sense of what actually happened at the scene of the crimeJosephus was born into a priestly family He was educated in a rabbinic school and studied with the Pharisees the Sadducees and the Essenes trying to decide on which sect to join After living with an ascetic hermit in the desert for three years of meditation he returned to Jerusalem as a PhariseeA few years later Josephus is given a minor diplomatic role traveling to Rome to appeal to Nero on behalf of some fellow priests who had been charged with an unspecified crime He wins their acuittalBack in Jerusalem as war is about to break out Josephus sides with the moderates to argue against the nationalists who are willing to take on the Roman empire When the nationalists win the day and war is inevitable he accepts their appointment as commander of GalileeAs the Romans reduce every fortified town and village in Galilee they finally surround Jotapata where Josephus is holed up with a few survivors Here is where Josephus' account becomes the cringeworthy indictment of his own character that follows him in his footsteps almost two thousand years laterFirst his troops catch him trying to escape from the death trap He claims that it was only his intention to go out and rally reinforcements in order to return and rescue them He manages to talk himself out of being executed by his own troops who then decide that rather than surrender to the Romans they should each commit suicide Josephus argues that suicide is a dishonorable death and that instead they should draw lots to kill one another Naturally lucky Josephus draws one of the last two tickets and when it comes down to himself and a lone survivor he suggests that they should surrender to the RomansWhen taken to Vespasian Josephus makes the outlandish prophesy that his captor will one day become emperor Hearing other Jews assert that Josephus has the gift of prophesy Vespasian spares him When the prophesy comes true shortly after Nero's death Josephus is released and is literally handed the keys to the kingdom that will later award him a house in Rome that had once belonged to Vespasian himself tax free estates in Judea and a pension to write his histories Josephus son of Matthias will eventually take the name Flavius Josephus in honor of his new patrons and write his history of the Jewish revoltThe original text was written in Aramaic Later Josephus has it translated into Greek for the Gentile community Most upper class Romans were fluent in Greek as were Vespasian and Titus who reviewed the text before releasing it for distribution This edited edition also serves as an apologia for his tarnished reputation As a side point of interest ancient scrolls were about 10 inches wide and 30 feet long They were often referred to as a book but by modern standards they would be considered a long chapter Scribes were paid per hundred lines of script In the first century reading books was a rich man's pleasure One can only imagine how magnificent and imposing the interior of the Royal Library of Alexandria must have looked with its collection of thousands upon thousands of scrolls containing the written word of the ancient world Now back to The Jewish Revolt as told by a traitor and a scholar who was indeed an eyewitnessJosephus begins his account by giving a history of the region from the Maccabaean revolt in 65 BC up to a very detailed account of the murderous reign of the warlord and despot HerodAfter than a third of the book the reader suddenly experiences whiplash when a massacre of Jewish men women and children makes war imminent This is what the reader has been waiting forAgrippa warns the gathered citizenry against going into battle against an empire that has conuered nation after nation after nation Even skeptical scholars suggest that Josephus was very likely present when Agrippa delivered his famous passionate appeal but that he greatly embellished itThe nationalist faction wins the day against the moderates but that factionalism will play out and devolve into fratricide within the walls of Jerusalem while both sides are battling the Romans laying siege outsideThe reader will soon identify the tactical folly committed by the radicals in assuming that they could possibly win a defensive war against the only nation on earth that maintained a peacetime army that trained strenuously every day a disciplined army supported by calvary archers and siege engines that the Jewish forces lacked As a behind the lines eyewitness Josephus gives us the only description of the composition deployment command and tactics of units of the first century Roman war machineThere is a respite in the fighting as Rome finds itself between emperors and Vespasian lacks imperial orders Finally Vespasian becomes Emperor and his son Titus assumes command of the Roman forces In short order Titus reduces all of the surrounding fortress cities and encircles Jerusalem Famine panic and desperation consume the citySurrounded by the Romans who breach wall after wall Jerusalem is wracked by murderous factional infighting Time after time using Josephus as a mediator Titus offers clemency if Jerusalem will only surrender Both factions reject every offer executing anyone suspected of surrenderingBreaching the final wall the Romans enter without mercy and lay waste to the cityAmid the smoldering ruins Titus allows Josephus to help himself to any spoils from the ruins as a reward for his service He passes on the loot but accepts some copies of the Scriptures the release of his brother fifty friends and several women and children of acuaintances lined up for deportation and enslavement as well as three friends who were being crucified One of those crucified actually survives his ordeal Titus also rewards him with an estate outside of Jerusalem as compensation for his former property within the destroyed cityThe looting of the Temple and the taking of thousands of prisoners deflates the price of both gold and slaves throughout the region There will still be enough profit to build the famous ColosseumIt is only natural to assume that ten years later in Rome Titus would invite his famous historian to join him in the royal box for some entertaining games in the Colosseum The same literary lion who devoted nine pages of his history to a minutely detailed description of the wonders of the destroyed Temple How could Flavius Josephus refuse his Emperor and patron? Ave Caesar morituri te salutantHail Caesar those of us about to die salute you

  3. Evan Leach Evan Leach says:

    Over 1900 years ago in July of 67 forty one prominent Jewish leaders huddled in a dark cave below the city of Yodfat in Galilee One year before the entire province of Judea had risen in revolt from the Roman Empire and Roman forces had been systematically decimating the northern part of the province as a result Yodfat had just fallen and its citizens were being massacred by the thousands Trapped and despairing the leaders decided that mass suicide was preferable to falling into Roman hands and prepared to kill themselves But one of the forty one the Galilean commander Josephus urged surrender instead Incensed by his cowardice his countrymen prepared to kill him until Josephus came up with an alternate plan Instead of killing themselves the Jews would draw lots one after another and take turns killing one another in order Somehow Josephus ended up drawing the next to last straw And when thirty nine of his compatriots lay dead he was able to convince the last remaining man that discretion was the better part of valor after all and the two of them climbed out of that bloody cavern to offer their surrender to the victorious RomansAt least according to Josephus that is Memorial to the Defenders of YodfatUpon defection to the Romans Josephus was able to somehow save his own skin in large part by claiming that divine inspiration revealed to him that the Roman commander Vespasian would become Emperor which shortly came true But unsurprisingly Josephus’ countrymen saw the defection and survival of one of their generals as something less than divine intervention and Josephus was driven to write this history of the First Roman Jewish War in an attempt to clear his name Josephus’ account actually starts way back in the time of Octavian and Antony with a description of the tumultuous reign of the infamous King Herod the Great known to many readers from the New Testament He goes on to cover the intervening years between Herod’s death and the revolt of 66 as successive Roman governors exploited their Jewish subjects culminating in the greed of Gessius Florus When Jewish anger finally erupted in revolution Josephus was named commander of the Galilean province which was to bear the full brunt of the initial Roman assault Holding Galilee against multiple Roman legions and their auxiliaries was an impossible task but Josephus did the best he could at least according to his own account before the northern part of the province fell Then Vespasian and his son Titus also destined to reign as Caesar turned their eyes to the south where Jerusalem awaitedEven by the standards of ancient warfare the fall of Jerusalem was brutal While the Romans were occupied in the north Jews in the south turned on themselves in Josephus’ words like a “wild beast grown mad which for want of food from abroad fell now upon eating its own flesh” At a time when every able bodied soldier was badly needed a series of petty tyrants fought each other for control of Jerusalem and the surrounding territories The incredulous Romans sat back and let this play out for a while before Titus finally descended to lay siege to the city Unfortunately for the Jews Titus waited until the city’s population was vastly inflated due to the Passover when over a million Jews from the countryside flocked to the city to celebrate the festival before beginning the siege This exacerbated an already desperate food situation and the result was famine on a horrific scale Hundreds of thousands died of starvation while the survivors turned to increasingly desperate measures By the height of the siege “some persons were driven to that terrible distress as to search the common sewers and old dunghills of cattle and to eat the dung which they got there” Many begged their own soldiers to kill them judging death by the sword to be preferable than starvation In one particularly harrowing story a woman killed and ate her own infant sonJosephus now firmly on the Roman side begged the citizens to surrender While the majority of the populace was desperate enough the armed garrison was determined to fight to the last The city paid the price in the summer of 70 the city finally fell after a seven month siege the temple was destroyed and Jerusalem was effectively leveled Those who had somehow survived the siege “were hewn down in indiscriminate carnage The number of the slain exceeded that of the slayers The legionaries had to clamber over heaps of dead to carry on the work of extermination” The Arch of Titus commemorating Titus’ victory in the Siege of JerusalemWith that the war was effectively over But his people never forgave Josephus who was viewed as a 1st century Benedict Arnold He spent most of the rest of his life in Rome living in comfort but always conscious that many Jews considered him a traitor The Jewish War is his most famous book and while the reader has to watch out for Josephus’ self serving tendencies and occasional bias this is an important primary source for both Jewish history and the history of the Roman Empire Josephus’ work isn’t as pleasurable to read as say Thucydides but he tells an epic and tragic story well enough Not a “must read” by any stretch but readers interested in history particularly Jewish andor Roman history will find plenty of interest here 3 stars

  4. Michael Michael says:

    If you are looking for epic this is it From the dysfunctional family intrigues of the paranoid Herod's palace to the mass suicide of the Jews at Masada Josephus who apparently was at the siege of Jerusalem relates the story of the Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire I started reading this book because it was referenced in two others I have been reading; one on the copper scroll of umran a list of treasures that may have been saved from the temple and another on the treasure that Titus took back to Rome that has since disappeared into the coffers of history But I also found that the book puts a good deal of the events of the New Testament in context With the background of the factional conflicts in the temple particularly between the priests installed by Herod and those by the Jews themselves it is easy to see how some of the actions of Christ could be seen as controversial or even threatening like the raid on the moneychangers and the halting of lawfully carried out lapidation given the Herodian expectations of conspiracy and the pressures on the temple caused by this It also puts some of Christ's prophecies into perpective Josephus himself has an almost modern sensibility and his decriptions of the siege the atrocities the violence the betrayals the power stuggles and the intrigues is tinged with both horror and sympathy outrage and sadness It is often a moving chronicle of a people and thier struggles against a dominating power and the price they pay for thier survival

  5. Kori Johnson Kori Johnson says:

    Reading about Jesus' prophecies of the Jewish War in the New Testament is one thing reading the actual account is another This book is an eyewitness account of the Jewish War I was horrified at the things the Jews did to their own country their doings were what caused them to lose the war And yet even while killing each other and defiling God's temple they still expected God to save them from the Romans I was almost horrified to tears on the monstrosities they committed One woman even cooked and ate her own child when she was driven mad by the famine that took hold of Jerusalem while the Romans were laying siege to it The whole book though gave a wonderful demonstration of God's power and providence and I truly loved it even while it horrified me It was wonderfully horrible and horribly wonderful

  6. Yigal Zur Yigal Zur says:

    one of the best histories ever written

  7. Pete daPixie Pete daPixie says:

    From the horse's mouth Josephus a priest in the temple in Jerusalem a military leader of Jewish resistance against Vespasian a romanised citizen The history is written in the style of the time The Penuin edition abridged from the originalis still enormously readable Valuable insight to early christianity and the might of Rome

  8. Chris Watson Chris Watson says:

    What a story Was there ever such a time A nation destroyed by a tyrannical empire tearing itself to pieces by self destructive factionalism and fanaticism Told so well objectively but not too much so by a man who was present on the side of the Romans to participate in his own nation's destructionIt deserves 9 stars

  9. Czarny Pies Czarny Pies says:

    Flavius Josephus' Jewish Wars is a great book with extraordinary rewards for at least four categories of reader Churchgoers will be fascinated by the portrait that it provides of Judea at the time Christ was alive Those interested in political history will discover a complex and detailed portrait of the workings of the Roman Empire Those interested in military history will find an excellent description of the techniues and horrors of war in the first century of the Common Era Finally the Jewish Wars contains thought provoking discussion on the need for Jews to have their own stateThose who have attended church regularly for a number of years will certainly remember homilies in which the priest or minister has made an assertion about the historical era that Jesus lived in when attempting to explain the meaning of a reading In fact there exist only two significant sources about the historical social and cultural context of Jesus the New Testament books and Josephus' writings For anyone intending to continue attending Church the Jewish Wars will have great rewards Josephus provides an analysis of Pharisees Sadducees and Essenes He describes the religious practices of the Jews in the first century and he gives a gripping account of the wars in the Judea during the periodFor those interested in the history the Jewish Wars provides a wealth of detail on multiple aspects of the Roman Empire Josephus gives an account of the training and techniues of the roman army as well as its methods when engaged in battle He describes the style of government and diplomacy used by the Romans to control the territories on the periphery of their empire He explains how how palace politics affected wars in the distance provinces and how wars in the provinces impacted politics at the centre Tacitus and Suetonius brilliant describe the political struggles in Roman but Josephus gives us the single best picture of politics in the Roman ProvincesAs a general who fought against the Romans for several years Josephus provides great detail on the techniues of battles and sieges conducted by the Roman legions His book is a rich source on siege engines armour and battlefield tactics The Jewish Wars is a treasure trove for the lover of military historyFor those who dislike war Josephus offers a passionate and cogent description of the horrors of war At the end of every account of a battle Josephus laments the loss of life His descriptions of the brutality of sieges are remarkable He describes the miseries of hunger that the civilians trapped in cities under siege and notes that at times people will resort to cannibalism He tells how innocent people will often be slaughtered or sold into slavery after the siege ends All in all Josephus makes a powerful case for peace and against warFinally at front and centre of the Jewish Wars is Josephus' argument that it is better for a people to enjoy peace and prosperity under a foreign power than to fight a war of independence that will entail an enormous loss of life and property Josephus began as a resistance fighter and then went over to the Romans hoping that if enough Jews sided with the Romans the deaths and destruction that ultimately occurred would be averted Thus Josephus can be viewed either as a turncoat or as a rational man trying to save his people from the disaster that would result from their fighting a war against a such a vastly stronger enemy However whether one agrees with Josephus or not it is uite clear that he makes a brilliant case for the course that he choseThe Jewish Wars is an excellent book for many reasons and I recommend it highly to anyone who is interested in either the Roman Empire the beginnings of Christianity or the history of the Jewish people

  10. Paul Dubuc Paul Dubuc says:

    I bought this book to read before a trip to Israel in 1999 It's a very readable English translation This gives Josephus' account of the war between the Romans and the Jews in the 1st century Most fascinating and horrible are the accounts of the destruction of Gamla and Jerusalem and the final siege of Masada Scholars are critical of Josephus because he puts too much of himself into the story and because it is probably biased in favor of his Roman benefactors Josephus began fighting against the Romans but then came over to their side when he was captured and convinced of the hopelessness of the rebellion He tried to convince the Jews not to fight but to accept Roman rule He wrote this history for the Romans' benefit after the war Nevertheless there are very few good historical accounts of this place and time Reading it gives you a taste of what life would have been like in that ancient land during this terrible period It's well worth the time spent reading it especially if you plan to visit the places described

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